If students are not trained to ask basic questions about the images which confront them, if they are not asked to examine the knowledge and assumptions which they already possess, they are being denied the opportunity to develop the most simple and essential critical tools.
Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (1895 – 1970) was a Soviet folklorist and scholar who analyzed the basic structural elements of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible structural units. His research on fairy-tales achieved world recognition as the first application of structuralism to the humanities and created the foundation for new disciplines, such as narratology, semiology and structural anthropology. Umberto Eco considers that “Saussure + Lévi-Strauss + Hjelmslev + Propp drawn up the method, which tried to be integral one, that is know as structuralism”. (Eco, p. 348). Successors such as Roland Barthes, A. J. Greimas and Claude Lévi-Strauss tried to spread this method to address symbolic expression as a form of culture.