If students are not trained to ask basic questions about the images which confront them, if they are not asked to examine the knowledge and assumptions which they already possess, they are being denied the opportunity to develop the most simple and essential critical tools.
Clyde Raymond Miller (July 7, 1888 – August 29, 1977) was an associate professor of education at Teachers College, Columbia University who co-founded the Institute for Propaganda Analysis with Edward A. Filene and Kirtley F. Mather in 1937. Miller began his career as a reporter for the Cleveland Plain Dealer. During World War I he wrote columns and articles related to patriotism and the activities of the Justice Department and participated in vigilante "spy hunts" with the American Protective League. He testified as a government witness in the high-profile prosecution of Eugene V. Debs under the 1917 Espionage Act, for speaking against the war effort. Miller detailed his role in the Debs case in an article in Progressive Magazine, October 1963. In the 1930s Miller was a director of educational services and later an associate professor in the Columbia University Teachers' College. In 1937 he co-founded the Institute for Propaganda Analysis, and wrote extensively about the subject of propaganda techniques and how to detect them. Miller's propaganda analysis techniques were significantly incorporated into the progressive curriculum policies of The Springfield Plan in the mid-1940s. The Springfield Plan was a widely lauded and emulated curriculum for intercultural education that was implemented in the public school system of Springfield, Massachusetts. The plan was the subject of several books, numerous academic journal articles, and it was the subject of a 1945 Warner Bros. short film, It Happened in Springfield, starring Andrea King.