All illusions are potential ways of ordering reality. The goal of criticism should therefore be not to destroy illusions but to make us more sensitive to their workings and their complexity.
Seymour Papert was a mathematician and computer scientist who studied with Jean Piaget. He suggested that learners create mental models to understand the world around them and his ideas have become known as constructionism. This is a theory of learning that advocates student-centered inquiry and experimentation where students use what they already know, to acquire more knowledge. Students learn through project-based learning activities where they make connections between different ideas and areas of knowledge facilitated by the teacher. Papert believed that learning can happen most effectively when people are active in making tangible objects in the real world, an idea that builds upon Jean Piaget's epistemological theory of constructivism. He wrote, "The word constructionism is a mnemonic for two aspects of the theory of science education underlying this project. From constructivist theories of psychology we take a view of learning as a reconstruction rather than as a transmission of knowledge. Then we extend the idea of manipulative materials to the idea that learning is most effective when part of an activity the learner experiences as constructing a meaningful product." Papert's ideas became well known through the publication of his seminal book Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas (Basic Books, 1980). Papert described children creating programs in the Logo educational programming language. He likened their learning to living in a "mathland" where learning mathematical ideas is as natural as learning French while living in France.